Authored by Kiwi Yao, researcher @OKX Ventures
Since September 2021, when Vitalik Buterin proposed EIP-4337, the concept of account abstraction has been gradually introduced into mainstream Web3 wallets. OKX Ventures takes the origin of this concept as a starting point and systematically reviews the past, current status, and future opportunities of account abstraction.
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A quick and simple guide to account abstraction and EIP-4337
In this article, we unpack what account abstraction (AA) means for Ethereum accounts, focusing on the newly introduced EIP-4337 proposal. We explore how AA aims to simplify account management, offering users more flexibility and enhanced security options. The discussion includes key elements like user operations, bundler, and EntryPoint contracts, and contrasts EIP-4337 with its predecessor, EIP-3074. We also delve into the implications for different wallet types and the overall transaction process. If you’re keen to understand the evolving landscape of Ethereum account management, this article offers a comprehensive overview.
Exploring multi-chain account abstraction solutions: native support and ERC-4337 compatibility
In this piece, we dive into the emerging world of multi-chain account abstraction, a technology that simplifies user interaction across multiple blockchains. We discuss two main types of multi-chain AA: native support and ERC-4337 compatibility, each with its own set of advantages and challenges. The article also provides an in-depth look at various networks like Arbitrum, Polygon, and Starknet, comparing their AA solutions and how they handle issues like gas payments and transaction validation. Whether you’re interested in the technical aspects or the broader implications for blockchain adoption, this article offers a comprehensive guide to understanding multi-chain AA.
Crunching the data on account abstraction’s 2023 growth
In this article, we provide a comprehensive data-driven analysis of the rapid growth in account abstraction, particularly in 2023. By September, over 520,000 ERC-4337 accounts were deployed on Ethereum, Arbitrum, Optimism, and Polygon, with a staggering 80% created in July alone. Polygon and Optimism saw significant boosts due to new product launches, while Arbitrum and Ethereum lagged behind somewhat. The article also highlights the explosive quarterly growth rates in user ops and the increasing role of paymasters and bundlers. Each major network — Polygon, Optimism, Arbitrum, and Ethereum — is examined in detail, revealing their unique contributions to the surge in account abstraction. The data suggests that layer 2 solutions are already playing a pivotal role in driving Web3 adoption.
Beyond traditional transactions: the opportunities account abstraction brings
Here we explore the opportunities account abstraction brings to the crypto landscape, particularly with the ERC-4337 standard. Through smart contracts like paymasters, AA is bridging the Web2-Web3 divide, offering solutions for gas fee payments and transaction pre-approvals. Bundlers, another key feature, aggregate user actions for efficient blockchain interactions. The article also touches on the advent of ERC-6551, which is set to revolutionize the NFT market, especially in on-chain gaming and decentralized identity (DID). Overall, AA is subtly reshaping the Web3 ecosystem, making it more accessible and versatile for both developers and users.
Exploring the powerful synergy of account abstraction and intents
In this piece, we look into the synergy between smart accounts and intent in shaping the future of digital asset management. Intent focuses on user experience, translating needs into streamlined operations, while account abstraction handles backend efficiencies. The article categorizes various types of intent, from conditional to multi-step, and explores how AA can make these intents more efficient. It also discusses the role of intermediary intent pools, language evolution, and the potential for AI automation. Risks like centralization and trust, however, shouldn’t be overlooked. Overall, the convergence of smart accounts, intent, and AA could set the stage for a more efficient and user-centric digital world.
What’s next in 2023 for account abstraction?
In this last article, we look at what the future of AA could look like, identifying two main market participants: smart contract wallets and third-party infrastructure providers. Smart contract wallets like Unipass are in the early stages of adopting EIP-4337, while Web2 giants like Visa are also exploring AA. On the other hand, infrastructure providers like StackUp and Biconomy offer modular solutions, with StackUp being particularly profitable across multiple chains. Pimlico leads in market share and profitability, especially on Polygon. The article also outlines various Ethereum improvement proposals (EIPs) that aim to optimize AA, and discusses the roadmap for EIP-4337, which focuses on market expansion and user experience optimization. The future of AA is tied to its adoption rate and its ability to innovate, particularly in the DeFi and GameFi ecosystems. Monetization models are still under exploration, emphasizing the need for high-value use cases.
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